Abuja for Visas

Lagos, Nigeria

a

Abuja, Nigeria

I’m in Abuja, Nigeria, trying to get an onward visa for Niger, plus a visa for Democratic Republic of Congo. This is a quite modern city designed along the lines of Washington, D.C. I’ll have to stay at least over the weekend, and possibly until the new year to get the visas.

Best of all, I managed to get the power adapter for my laptop in Lagos. I had a scare when I forgot the password I had used to lock the laptop. When using it everyday, it was easy to remember the password, but after a two-week break, I had no idea. Fortunately, the Dell guy who sold me the power adapter noticed that there was a password clue in Windows XP, and after thinking about my clue for quite awhile, I got a clue and remembered the password. So now, I’m catching up on a couple of weeks of computer updates and researching and writing a lot in my hotel room at the Q Palace Hotel here in Abuja.

Olumo Rock Warriors in Abeokuta

Abeokuta, Nigeria

On Olumo Rock in Abeokuta, there are traditional markers commemorating warriors who fought to defend the Egba people.

Main Shrine, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria Main Shrine, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria View Over Elevator Shaft, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria

City View, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria Sign for Odan Tree of Doggedness, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria Remains of Odan Tree of Doggedness, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Sign for Resting Place of Sonni the Osi of Itoko, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Lisabi (pronounced Lishabi), was an Egba warlord and a great hero. He led the Egba people in war defending against Oyo Kingdom. First ones to win against the Oyo. Then people of the town betrayed him. He went to the Oba forest where the ground opened up and swallowed him. The chain he held is still there in the forest. Every year the people hold the Lisabi Day festival there.

Other warriors commemorated on Olumo Rock include: Alatshi, Shudeke, Lamodi, Ogunbono, and Okunkeno, who became the first king of Abeokuta.

Warriors Commemorated on Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria Sign for Ancient Route to Top, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria

View of City, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria View of City, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Jumbled Boulders on Summit, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria Sign for Iroko Crown Tree on Summit, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria Iroko Crown Tree on Summit, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria

View of City, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria View of Summit, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria View of City, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Not commemorated there because she was a woman is the Amazon warrior Efuroye Tinanbu, Yalode of Egba.

Abeokuta means “under rock? where the Egba hid during the war. The rock also afforded an excellent view of the surrounding countryside, making it easier to defend the location.

Egba Wartime Hideout, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria Holes for Grinding Pepper and Other Things, Main Cave Chamber, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria Sign for Main Cave Chamber, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Odun, as in the Odun River, has a variety of meanings, including “sweat?, “iron?, etc.

Sign for Hidden Orisha Obaluaye Chamber, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria Guide Named Praise Ademola Oladepupo, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria Guide and Manager From Hotel in Town, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Guide Named Praise Ademola Oladepupo and Guide and Manager From Hotel in Town, Olumo Rock, Abeokuta, Nigeria

An Olumo Rock guide named Praise Ademola Oladepupo (pictured just above) provided this information.

Nollywood Film Plots

December 24, 2007, Heritage Hotel, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Plot elements of Nollywood films–

  • Male honor, public humiliation
  • Gifts among family members, particularly from men seeking daughters in marriage
  • Sin of sex outside marriage
  • Evil of non-Christian devil magic
  • Overriding importance of marriage and marriage into “good family?, to the point of parent-forced marriages going awry, children escaping arranged marriage for love marriages
  • Evil aunt taking care of orphaned nieces, abusing them over her spoiled daughter
  • The wealth and vice of the big city, the modern ways in conflict with tradition
  • The prevalence of fraudulent activity (419 law, FCEE agency to counter fraud)
  • Bandits and violence
  • Foreigners as bandits, negative influence on Nigerians who travel abroad
  • Submission of women, women like children, only to serve and comfort husband
  • Domestic violence and abuse
  • Value of foreign education in business
  • Importance of flashy car, especially Mercedes (sensual car cinematography)
  • Pregnancy and miscarriages, but little of early childraising
  • Lack of funds for life-saving medical treatment
  • Hysterical grief of women at loss of loved one
  • Tendency to pair lighter-skinned women with darker-skinned men
  • Importance of forgiveness for past wrongs

Osun Sacred Forest in Oshogbo, Nigeria

Oshogbo, Nigeria

Oshogbo (or Osogbo), the “city of peace” never dominated by foreign rulers, has a river that runs through it which the residents worship as the Yoruba goddess Osun.

River View, Oshogbo, Nigeria

I saw this amazing sacred forest, the Osun Sacred Grove, reportedly the original settlement of the founders of Oshogbo starting more than 400 years ago. Now a long-term Oshogbo resident in her 90s, Austrian artist Suzanne Wenger (or Susanne Wenger?) helped over the years to restore the grove with fantastic Yoruba sculptures and was ordained as a priestess of the cult of the deity Obatala – the god of creation.

UNESCO Sign for Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Entrance Gate for Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Entrance Gate for Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Entrance Tunnel for Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Mosaic in Entrance Tunnel for Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Wooded Path, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Ceramic Pot, Probably Altar, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Clay Mound, Probably Altar, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Gnarly Tree by Sculpted Wall, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpted Wall, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Thatched Ceremonial Home, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Nigerian Tourists in Front of Thatched Ceremonial Home, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Nigerian Tourists in Front of Thatched Ceremonial Home, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Art on Pillar of Ceremonial Platform, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrines by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Lush Vegetation by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Offerings at Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Tunnel Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Tunnel Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Possibly a Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Bridge Across Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Water Receptacle at Top of Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Wild Tree Branches, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Wild Tree Branches, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Magic Mushrooms, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Well-Rooted Tree, Osun River Bank, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Phallic Energy of Well-Rooted Tree, Osun River Bank, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Swirling Eddies in Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Bamboo by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Tree With Vines Dangling Into Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Lush Vegetation by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Lush Vegetation by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Bamboo by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Shade Under Bamboo by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Bamboo Cluster by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Bamboo Grove, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Mossy Foot at Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Stone-Studded Ceramic Pot at Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Ritual Ceramic Pot in Woods Near Chair Sculpture Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Tree Lichen or Nest, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Toward the end of the visit at the main grove, I returned to the area by the Osun River and near the ceremonial dwelling, which was a kind of palace. The residents didn’t want me to take pictures unless I paid lots of baksheesh. I had already paid to take pictures when I paid the admission fee, so I decided to let the pictures of the palace go and take pictures of everything else instead. ;-)

Sculpture Shrine by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine by Osun River, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

I found some more sculptures and shrines on my way back to the entrance.

Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Shrine, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Meeting Building, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Closeup of Carved Wooden Door, Meeting Building, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Another Meeting Building, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Closeup of Carved Wooden Door, Another Meeting Building, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Carved Wooden Pole, Another Meeting Building, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

At the entrance to the grove, I found out there is another whole area down the street that I hadn’t seen, so I broke out some more baksheesh to see the place.

Chameleon Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Chameleon Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Closeup of Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Closeup of Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Closeup of Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Closeup of Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Closeup of Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Closeup of Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Closeup of Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Closeup of Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Closeup of Sculpture, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

After leaving the portion of the grove, I saw lots of sculptures alongside the access road on the way out.

Sculptures on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Probably Fungus on Tree, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Artisanal Building on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Artisanal Building on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpted Wall, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrines on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Bloody Animal Sacrifie, Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Bamboo Grove, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Monkeys Hiding in Vegetation by Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Monkeys Hiding in Vegetation by Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Tall Trees by Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sculpture Shrine on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculpture Shrine and Hollow Tree on Access Road, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Entrance to Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria Sign at Entrance to Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

Sculptured Wall at Entrance, Osun Sacred Grove, Oshogbo, Nigeria

I have located a place in Lagos to replace my lost laptop power adapter, so… Life is good! More after I get my laptop working again.

Ife Museum and Oba’s Palace in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

The ride from Benin City to Ile-Ife was not as difficult as my prior overland travel in Nigeria. Evangelist Christians are omnipresent in most of the southern part of the country with Muslims predominating in the north and traditional animist and other religions hanging on to survival a bit behind the scenes.

Christian Decorations on Back of Truck, Route from Benin City to Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Ile-Ife, Nigeria

The Ife Museum in Ile-Ife had the following exhibits–
Musical instruments:

Rattles (calabash)

Metal gong

Gan-gan (talking drum with stick)

Saworo (metal musical instrument)

Metal ornaments:

Bracelets, ring, from 10-11th century CE, beautiful designs, woman-figures

Ibeji twin figures

Yoruba consider twins a source of blessing, bring good fortune to parents

Barren women can approach Ogun during Olojo festival to gain fertility, possibly even twins

Ibom masquerade among Efik people in Calabar – snake-like cords and raffia skirt

King and Queen, probably Ooni and wife, his left leg around her right leg, many beads in their crowns, beads on hands, chest, feet, rings on second toes, excavated by Frank Willet at Ita-Yemoo, dated 11-12th century CE, bronze, his face brown, her face green

Emir of Kano’s fara (jester)

Royal stool, terracotta, largest known in Africa from Iwinrin Grove, Ile-Ife, human figure standing on four-legged rectangular stool, behind him a pole of some king with a protrusion over the stool and between its feet

Olokun head, god(dess?) of the sea, giver of children, healer of abdominal disease, treat water with herbs for drinking

Ceremonial Insignia

Heavy next ring with spiral decorations at bottom of think neck loop

Brass mace heads, with aged gagged men with hole for mounting on wood shaft

Brace scepters, one with gagged men, from Ita-Yemoo, Ife

Glass beads made at Olokun Grove, melted in crucibles, various colors, Segi blue beads the most valued by Yoruba, thin and long, light blue

Animal Life

Rams, goats, kids represent offerings to gods and ancestors

Dogs also perhaps, but also as human companion

Snakes and chameleons are sacred

Monkeys in legends

Owl unique in west African art

Yoruba oba may own 40-50 crowns, most made of colored beads, collars over necklaces of fold, fly-whisk of horse hair

Offering pots at shrine or sacred grove, or burial place

Ade Owo Eyo – crown of cowrie cells, worn by wealthy individuals

Hunter mask – skin-covered wooden mask worn as camouflage

Sango stool and staffs

Orere Ifa (Ifa priest staff)

Wooden tray for divination with palm nuts

Divination tray (wooden) – with Opele divination instrument, dried fruit of Schnebera Golugensis – has convex and concave surfaces

Araba – Ifa chief priest – bust adorned with cowries selected from male Ifa worshipers without facial marks, presides over Ifa meetings and annual Ifa festival proceedings

Ase juju – usually prepared inside horn of ram or goat, invoked for cursing or healing, protruding pin inside the Ase – when removed and touches tongue, becomes a potent force of command, cursing, or healing

Ojboni metal crown – conical with facial representation, secret cult originating in Yorubaland and spreading elsewhere

Beaded bag – used by Yoruba ritual specialists, esp. Ife diviners and Sango priests

Archaeology in Ife:

Lander, 1830

Elgee, 1908

Ennett, 1910

Frobenius excavated Olokun Grove

Wunmonjie finds in 1938

Osangangan Obamakin Grove, 1943

Abiri excavation by Bernard Fagg, 1949

Ogun Ladin, Olokuri Walode, Ogbon Oya, 1953

Yemoo, Frank Willet, until 1983

Obamari Grove and Oduduwa College, Oliver Myers, 1964 and 1966

Stone carvings from Ore (One?) Grove

Potsherds Pavement – Luwoo – during reign of only female ooni of Ife-Luwoo, c. 1100 CE

Opa Oranmiyan (Oranmiyan staff)

Legend of sword that turns into obelisk

Oranminyan, youngest son of Odududwa, c. 1200-1300 CE

Husband of Moremi, heroine of Ife

Benin dynasty founded by Oranmiyan, married one of their daughters

Gave birth to Eulaka, first Oba of Benin

Then went to Oyo where his son Ajaka became Alaafin of Oyo

Oranmiyan then drove Ooni Aleyemore (son of Obalufon Ogbogboirin) off the throne of Ife (he had taken throne after Oduduwa’s death)

Ile-Oduduwa – location where Oduduwa believe to have resided

Oke Mogun (Ojobo) shrine, sacrifice offered to Ogun, god of iron, during Olojo festival, Ooni of Ife must visit twice to offer prayers for subjects during Olojo festival, only day when ooni dons the Are (or Ave?) crown

Igbo-Ukwu, 9th century CE, found burial chamber and art in 1938

Conical heads, used offerings at shrines or memorials to ancestors as tradition possibly elder than naturalistic heads

Crucibles found at Itajero used for making beads

Olokun Grove only place with both iron smelting and glass bead technology

Lokoloko stick – used to control crowd during Olojo festival

Osangangan Obamakin Grove – terracotta figure with elephantiasis of scrotum (Ile-Ife)

Ajilekege – granite head from Esure Ekiti, Ife

Stone vessel excavated from Orangangan Obamakin Grove – bubble at top suggesting palm wine fermentation, palm wine essential ritual item for Ogun during Olojo festival

Edan Ogboni – brass insignia worn around neck, male and female figures joined by chain, given to every member of Ogboni/Osugbo society among Yoruba

Ceremonial insignia of Yoruba cults:

Edau figure

Oluwo staff

Yeye

Plier ceremonial tool

Small scythe-like ceremonial tool

Gun powder flask with double face

Ogboni bell for heralding commencement of meeting

Oluwo figure

Bell probably used by Ifa cult, tall conical brass, nine inches long

I almost didn’t get to see the Oba’s palace in Ile-Ife, but luckily some other tourists wanted to see it at the same time, so they gave us a little tour for a little price. It was there I learned about Moremi, “the heroine from premordial times” who, when captured as a slave by the Ugbo people eventually married the Ugbo ruler and became the queen to discover the secret of the Ugbo’s power so that she could bring it back to her people, the Yoruba, and defeat the Ugbo.

Statue of the Yoruba Heroine Moremi, Oba Palace, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Statue of the Yoruba Heroine Moremi, Oba Palace, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Carved Wooden Palace Door, Oba Palace, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Carved Wooden Palace Door, Oba Palace, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Carved Wooden Palace Door and Totem Pole, Oba Palace, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Blurry Photo of Shrine to Ooni of Ife, Ooni Palace, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Dark Photo Looking Onto Grounds, Oba Palace, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Carved Wooden Totem Pole, Oba Palace, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Reply